Curs / Electrotehnica
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Domeniu: Electrotehnica
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Sensors and transducers course treats:
- The characteristics and performances
- The construction
- The functioning and the utility of sensors based
systems in industrial robots domain and applications.
The transducer represents an elementary unit able to
convert a physical non electrical variable into a variable
that can be evaluate electrically.
The sensor represents a system based on one or more
transducers able to convert a non electrical variable into
an electrical variable that can be use without any
processing in an automatic control system.
Applications of sensors
Sensors are present at the moment in almost all human
activities, starting from labour saving devices to
complex industrial processes.
In technique there are three main applications of
 Monitoring of processes and operations
 Control of processes and operations
 Experimental engineering analysis
1. Monitoring of industrial processes and
The sensors based monitoring systems are used to
visualize and represent the process parameters. Their
reading do not serve any control functions into process
or equipment.
The monitoring measurement system are simply
indicate the condition of the environment, process or
In home application, water, gas, and electric meters keep
track of the quantity of the commodity used so that the
cost to the user may be computed.
2. Control of processes and operations
In the most important type of application for sensor
based measuring systems, the instrument serves as a
component of an automatic control system.
A functional block diagram illustrating the operation of
such a system is shown in the figure.
To control a variable using an automatic system is based
on the "feedback" scheme. It is first necessary to
measure the variable. The control system must
incorporate at least one measuring instrument.
Examples of automatic control of a process:
Home-heating system
The home-heating system is designed to control the
temperature (thermostatic control) in a closed
environment (room).
A temperature-measuring instrument (often a bimetallic
element) senses the room temperature. The
measurement information is used to control the
heating/cooling device in order to regulate the
temperature inside the room.
A single control system may require information from
many measuring instruments. Many industrial machines
and process controllers also utilise multi-sensor
measurement systems.
3. Experimental engineering analysis
In solving engineering problems of the systems, two general
methods are available: theoretical and experimental.
Theoretical analysis method:
- To decompose the system in component elements
- To write the equations for component elements
- To eliminate the intermediary variables
- To determine the general equation
The features of the theoretical method:
1. Often gives results that are of general use rather than for
restricted application.
2. Invariably requires the application of simplifying assumptions.
Will result a simplified "mathematical model" of the system. This
means the theoretically predicted behaviour is always different
from the real behaviour.
3. In some cases, may lead to complicated mathematical problems.

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