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1. INTRODUCING TO NETWORKING

To know :

Understand the physical connections needed for a computer to connect to the Internet

Recognize the components of a computer

Install and troubleshoot NICs and modems

Configure the set of protocols needed for Internet connection

Use basic procedures to test an Internet connection

Demonstrate a basic ability to use Web browsers and plug-ins

1.1 Connecting to the Internet

1.1.1 Requirements for Internet connection

The Internet is the largest data network on earth. The Internet consists of many large and small networks that are interconnected. Individual computers are the sources and destinations of information through the Internet. Connection to the Internet can be broken down into the physical connection, the logical connection, and applications.

A physical connection is made by connecting an adapter card, such as a modem or a NIC, from a PC to a network. The physical connection is used to transfer signals between PCs within the local-area network (LAN) and to remote devices on the Internet.

The logical connection uses standards called protocols. A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network communicate. Connections to the Internet may use multiple protocols. The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite is the primary set of protocols used on the Internet. The TCP/IP suite works together to transmit and receive data, or information.

1.1.7 Testing connectivity with ping

Ping is a basic program that verifies a particular IP address exists and can accept requests. The computer acronym ping stands for Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper. The name was contrived to match the submariners' term for the sound of a returned sonar pulse from an underwater object.

The ping command works by sending special Internet Protocol (IP) packets, called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request datagrams, to a specified destination. Each packet sent is a request for a reply. The output response for a ping contains the success ratio and round-trip time to the destination. From this information, it is possible to determine if there is connectivity to a destination. The ping command is used to test the NIC transmit and receive function, the TCP/IP configuration, and network connectivity

1.2.4 Base 2 number system

The binary system uses only two symbols, which are 0 and 1. The position of each digit from right to left in a binary number represents the base number 2 raised to a power or exponent. These place values are, from right to left, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27, or 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 respectively.

Here is an example:

101102 = (1 x 24 = 16) + (0 x 23 = 0) + (1 x 22 = 4) + (1 x 21 = 2) + (0 x 20 = 0) = 22 (16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0)

This example shows that the binary number 10110 is equal to the decimal number

1.2.10 P addresses and network masks

When IP addresses are assigned to computers, some of the bits on the left side of the 32-bit IP number represent a network. The number of bits designated depends on the address class. To inform a computer how the 32-bit IP address has been split, a second 32-bit number called a subnetwork mask is used. This mask is a guide that determines how the IP address is interpreted. It indicates how many of the bits are used to identify the network of the computer. The subnetwork mask sequentially fills in the 1s from the left side of the mask. A subnet mask will always be all 1s until the network address is identified and then it will be all 0s to the end of the mask. The bits in the subnet mask that are 0 identify the computer or host.

A Boolean AND of the IP address 10.34.23.134 and the subnet mask 255.255.0.0 produces the network address of this host:00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110

11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 =>

00001010.00100010.00000000.00000000

The dotted decimal conversion is 10.34.0.0 which is the network portion of the IP address when the 255.255.0.0 mask is used.

Fisiere in arhiva (11):

  • INTRODUCING TO NETWORKING.doc
  • MODULE 10.doc
  • MODULE 11.doc
  • MODULE 2.doc
  • MODULE 3.doc
  • MODULE 4.doc
  • MODULE 5.doc
  • MODULE 6.doc
  • MODULE 7.doc
  • MODULE 8.doc
  • MODULE 9.doc