Urban-Planning

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Urban-planning means the unified development of cities and their neighbourhoods. For most of its history, urban-planning delat primarily with the regulation of land use and the physical arrangement of city structures, as guided by architectural, engineering, and land-development criteria. In the mid-20th century it broadened to include the comprehensive guidance to the physical, economic and social environment of a community. Elements characteristics of modern urban-planning include:

- general plans that summarize the objectives of (and restrains on) land development;

- zoning and subdivision controls that specify permissible land uses, densities, and requirements for streets, utility services and other improvements;

- plans for traffic flow and public transport;

- strategies for economic revitalization of depressed urban and rural areas;

- strategies for supportive action to help disadvantaged social groups;

- guidelines for environmental protection and preservation of resources.

The generic term of town has today a variety of forms: traditional town, metropolis, urban area, and urban agglomeration. It is better to use a wider meaning of the notion, which is urban phenomenon. This term covers all the urban forms, whatever their size.

During the last decades the town-planning term suffered important changes compared with the initial meaning. Even though this practice of organising the space is very old, the town-planning is a recent discipline born at the end of the XIXth century. Today town-planning includes a wide range in which are involved many urban disciplines: sociology, urban economy, urban engineering, urban financial administration, and urban low.

For the sociologist, the city is the physical expression of the inner social relations; for the engineer, the city is a system of under structures of all kinds; for the ecologist, it represents the condensation of human productions that disturbs the natural order; for the economist, it is the ensemble of profitableness factors often unequally distributed.

-The urban structure term reflects better the urban phenomenon on the whole and offers a simple and effective model starting from the systems and structures systems.

Town-planning is a spatial expression of politics such as: economics, social, cultural, ecological.

It concerns all the aspects connected to:

-physical and spatial planning;

-arrangements ;

-financial administration

of the terrains at all levels (rural, urban, metropolitan, regional, national, international).

-It requests an interdisciplinary approach for the integration of all aspects: physical, social, cultural, economical, political.

-It requests a work in a team.

The town-planning methods include:

-the synthesis and analysis;

-the composition and creation;

-the financial administration of the territory.

Generally speaking, this science has in view some aspects like: history, organisation, equipping, long term development, conservation and administration of a town. The aim of planning is to efficiently transform the reality and change it in accordance with the human aspirations. Planning means to settle the objectives and the achievement ways of them. The followed steps are:

-the settlement of problems to solve;

-the definition of the goals;

-the evaluation of ways;

-the assessment of the efficiency;

-the fixing of the realistic goals, taking into account the problems emergency;

-the searching of the priority order;

-the differentiation of the objectives in accordance with the priority list;

-the selection of the proper intervention ways;

-the insurance of the objectives achievement in the foreseen period of time.

The town-planning is the science that studies the arrangements of towns and their surroundings using different ways for a better site of streets, buildings and public services in a manner that can give to the inhabitants healthy, convenient and agreeable conditions.

-The shape of a square, the site of a lighting post in a street, of a tree, the combing manners of the drinking and used water, the colour, shape and sitting of screen signs, street publicity, advertising the solving way of collective dwellings, organisation of the building terrains, places for statues, all of them are town-planning problems.

-The town-planning study analysis: how it originates the evolution in time, the adoption of human requirements at the zone topography, hygiene aspects, circulation, improving of life conditions of the community, arrangement and embellishment of town through:

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