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- They are meant to allow the concentration of capital, because most national legislations include legal provisions.
- There are 3 categories of groups of companies:
1. the concern in the German system of law: it can be constituted in 2 ways:
a) by domination contract:
• the dominant country buys the market shares of another company to obtain the control over its capital
• the dominant companies place an important part in the managing system and economic and commercial policy of the dominant company
b) by incorporation contract: when a dominant country becomes a sole associate or a shareholder of an incorporated company
• the managing system of the incorporated companies is carried on by the dominant companies
2. the holding in the English system of law: it is constituted by purchasing on the market the shares of other commercial companies
when the holding owns 90% of the capital of the central company it negotiates with the shareholders who own the 10% and it offers them shares of the holding in exchange for shares of the controlled company
the holding becomes the sole shareholder of the controlled company
3. the economic interest group in the French system of law
It is a non-patrimonial goal that performs for its associates common activities like scientific research, advertising etc.
At the European level there are European economic interest groups, that have associates belonging to different European Union member states. In the Romanian system of law, the economic interest groups and European economic interest groups are regulated by law 161, 2003, regarding certain measures for insuring an open exercise, of public dignities or positions or transparency by preventing and sanctioning the corruption.
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