Communication, Meaning, Need, Types
Elements & Process of Communication
Barriers of Communication
Tools of Communication
Effective Communication Principles
Role of Communication in the Workplace (on board ship)
Extras din document
- To understand the meaning of communication
- To discuss the process of communication
- To study the importance of communication
- To study the features and scope of communication
- To study the various types of communication
What is communication?
Communication is not just an act. It is a process. The process of communication includes transmission if information, ideas, emotions, skills, knowledge by using symbols, words, pictures, figures, graphs or illustrations. The act of communication is referred to as ‘transmission’. It is the process of transmission that is generally termed as communication.
Communication regulates and shapes all human behavior. Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of the concepts of communication what is communication.
Meaning of Communication
The English word ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin noun ‘communis’ and the Latin verb ‘communicare’ that means ‘to make common’. Communication is a much hyped word in the contemporary world. It encompasses a multitude of experiences, actions and events, as well as a whole variety of happenings and meanings, and technologies too. Meetings, conferences, or even a procession thus can be a communication event. Newspapers, radio, video, and television are all ‘communication media’ and journalists, newsreaders; advertisers, public relation persons, and even camera crew are ‘communication professionals’.
"Communications is the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop." This broad definition, found in a book written by a sociologist, takes in about everything.
In contrast, some people limit their definitions of communication rather narrowly, saying, "Communication is the process whereby one person tells another something through the written or spoken word." This definition, from a book written by a journalist, seems reasonable for those in that field.
Some definitions fall in between these two extremes. Carl Hovland, a well-known psychologist of a few years ago, said communication is "the process by which an individual (the communicator) transmits stimuli (usually verbal symbols) to modify the behavior of the other individuals (communicates)."
This definition describes what many extension workers hope to achieve. You'll be trying to change behavior.
Some object to this definition. Their objections center on the phrase "modify the behavior." They say there are numerous occasions when they communicate, in their family and social lives for example, with no intention of attempting to modify behavior. However, we most likely do modify others' behavior even though that may not be our intention.
We could find many other definitions of communication. However, "meanings are in people and not words" and it is not likely that we could get a group of any size to agree exactly on one meaning. Besides, an exact definition of the word is not necessary. Our goal is to illustrate that it is difficult for many to formulate their own definition and that there is a wide range in meanings.
The communication process
To communicate effectively, we need to be familiar with the factors involved in the communication process. If we are aware of them, these factors will help us plan, analyze situations, solve problems, and in general do better in our work no matter what our job might be.
This leads to a discussion of the communication process. Let us look at it part by part as viewed by several communication theorists. Communication is a concern to many people. Therefore, a
lot of thought, work, and discussion have gone into different communication situations. Today, such people as psychologists, educators, medical doctors, sociologists, engineers and journalists represent only a few of the professional groups whose members have developed ways of looking at and talking about the communication process in their specialized fields.
Several theorists have discussed the communication process in ways that have important implications for those involved in informal education programs such as extension work. Each of the "models" that we review has a point of vital interest.
Communication models come in a variety of forms, ranging from catchy summations to diagrams to mathematical formulas. One model of the communication process reviewed is also one of the oldest.
Communication in its simplest sense involve two or more persons who come together to share, to dialogue and to commune, or just to be together for a festival or family gathering. Dreaming, talking with someone, arguing in a discussion, speaking in public, reading a newspaper, watching TV etc. are all different kinds of communication that we are engaged in every day.
Communication is thus not so much an act or even a process but rather social and cultural ‘togetherness’. Communication can be with oneself, god, and nature and with the people in our environment. Interaction, interchange, transaction, dialogue, sharing, communion, and commonness are ideas that crop up in any attempt to define the term communication.
According to Denis McQuail, communication is a process, which increases, commonality-but also requires elements of commonality for it to occur at all. A common language, for instance, does not necessarily bring people together. There are other factors too at play such as a shared culture and a common interest, which bring about a sense of commonality and more significantly, a sense of community.
Denis McQuail sees ‘human communication’ in linear terms as the sending of meaningful messages from one person to another. These messages could be oral or written, visual or olfactory. He also takes such things as laws, customs, practices, ways of dressing, gestures, buildings, gardens, military parades, and flags to be communication.
Thus, ‘communication’ can be defined as ‘the interchange of thoughts or ideas’. Again ‘communication’ is viewed as a transmission of information, consisting of discriminative stimuli, from a source to recipient’. In everyday life, the communication is a system through which the messages are sent, and feedback received. It is therefore, the process of transferring particular information or message from an information source to desired, definite or a particular destination. One of the main elements of communication messages is perception. The effectiveness of communication is limited by the receiver’s range of perception. In addition, people perceive only what they expect and understand. Lastly, communication makes a demand on the recipient, in terms of his emotional preference or rejection. Thus, communication is not to
be confused with information. While information is logical, formal, and impersonal, communication is perception.
1. Chirea-Ungureanu, C. 2013, Developing English Communication and Understanding
Skills on Board Ship
2. Barnlund, Dean C. 1991. Communication in a global village. In Intercultural
communication: a reader, (6th ed). eds. Samovar and Porter. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
3. McQuail, D., and Windahl, Sven, Communication Models For the Study of Mass
Communications, Longman, London and New York, 1981.
4. Merrill, John C. and Heinz-Dietrich Fisher, International and Intercultural
Communication, Hasting House Publishers, New York, 1976.
5. Rogers, E., and Shaemakers, F., Communication and Innovations: A Cross Cultural
Approach, The Free Press, New York, 1971
Conținut arhivă zip
- Effective communication course.pdf
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