Communication

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Definition

- Communication is a process that allows

organisms to exchange information by

several methods.

- Communication can be defined as the

process of meaningful interaction among

human beings. It is the act of passing

information and the process by which

meanings are exchanged so as to produce

understanding.

Classification

Standard

Business Intercultural

Standard

Specific language for:

- inviting

- suggesting

- advising

- accepting / refusing

- expressing opinions / preferences

- giving directions / orders

- specifying facts / locations / attitudes

Business

Dealing with specific lexical elements

Managing vocabulary regarding:

- telephoning

- e-mailing, writing business letters

- making presentations

- negotiating

- debating in / conducting meetings

- winning cooperation / trust

Intercultural

Concerns the background particularities (national/

geographic culture, social environment, ethnic/ racial/

group behaviour):

- Perception

- Belief, value, attitude systems

- World view

- Social organization

- Verbal processes

- Patterns of thoughts

- Nonverbal processes

- Behaviour

- Concept of time and space

Giving Directions

- When guiding somebody or being themselves instructed on where to go to be

able to reach a certain location in a town, people need some specific vocabulary,

especially certain verbs forming expressions:

- Go (straight) ahead

- on (up to the u-turn)

- back (ward) / forward

- up (on) (the …street/road)

- down (the …lane/path)

- along (the river)

- Follow the sidewalk/ rail/ road/ sign/ map/ guide/ traffic directions…

- Turn to the left (at the next crossroads)

- right

- round the corner / around / back

- Take the first/second/… turn to the l/r (on the … street)

- Cross the street (at the zebra crossing) (when the traffic light is green)

- the park

- the river

- Stop (at the red light/ railway signal)

- (to check) (to ask for further information)

- Pass (by the hotel (on your right))…

Expressing Location

- For showing

the positioning

of somebody

or something

at a certain

moment, the

prepositions

are of great

use. They can

combine with

certain nouns

– buildings or

places – to

denote

locations in a

town etc. 1in - not at or on (how some of the expressions are formed in

Romanian: 'la spital', 'pe câmp')

Giving Suggestions, Inviting and Advising

- Some

expressions

are useful

when wanting

to give advice

about a

certain flow of

events, to

invite

somebody to

join or to

suggest

him/her some

activity. These

special

expressions

are

characterized

by different

grammatical

structures that

follow them: Have you thought + of + Vb+ing ?

… you ought + to + Vb. .

Would you like + noun phrase / + to + Vb. ?

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