Engleza - Verbe

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S + HAVE / HAS + V-en (past participle)

I have received the parcel

He has heard the news

Perfect/Perfective indicates, first of all, ANTERIOR TIME;

- the time of the event is anterior to some time or reference / orientation


I have already met your sister

The flight was cancelled after we had paid for the tickets

If you had listened to me, we would have avoided mistakes

By next week, they will have completed their contract

I may have left the key at the office (last night)

I am sorry to have missed the plan

She regrets having abandoned the plan

The time of orientation / of reference, RT, is signalled by

- tense

- other elements of the sentence (adverbials expressing time)

- context

The common factor of meaning brought by PERFECT/PERFECTIVE to all these examples is ANTERIORITY to a RT

I have already met your sister

RT = ST (now) Axis of present

have met (the meeting happened before now)

The flight was cancelled after we had paid for the tickets

ST (now) Axis of present

RT = then (RT← ST) Axis of past

had paid (then = the moment of cancelling)

If you had listened to me, you would have avoided the mistakes

RT = ST (now) Axis of the present

if …had listened (hypothetical event)

( = If you had listened to me before now…)

By next week, they will have completed their contract

ST (now) Axis of present

RT = then Axis of future

will have completed RT → ST ; next week) .

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