Gramatica Limbii Engleze

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Cuprins

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

I. The present continuous 2

Form 2

The spelling of the present participle 3

Uses of the present continuous tense 4

Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses 5

II. The simple present tense 7

Form 7

Spelling notes 7

The simple present used to express 8

Exercises with present tense simple & continuous 9

III. The simple past tense 11

Form 11

Spelling notes 12

Irregular verbs: form 12

Use 12

IV. The past continuous tense 13

Form 13

Exercises with the Simple Past and the Past Continuous 14

V. The present perfect tense 18

Form 18

Use 19

VI. The present perfect continuous tense 21

Form 21

Use 21

Exercises with Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect Continuous 22

The Present Perfect and the Past Tense 25

VII. The past perfect tense 26

Form 26

Use 26

VIII. The past perfect continuous tense 27

Form 27

Use 27

The Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous 27

Exercises with Past Perfect Simple & Contiuous 28

IX. The future 31

9.1. The simple present used for the future 32

9.2. Future with intention 32

9.3. The present continuous 32

9.4. The be going to form 33

9.5. The future simple 35

9.6. The future continuous tense 37

9.7. The future perfect Form 39

9.8. The future perfect continuous 39

Exercises with the Future 40

Extras din document

I. The present continuous

Form

The present continuous tense is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + the present participle:

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I am working I am not working am I working?

you are working you are not working are you working?

he/she/it is working he/she/it is not working is he/she/it working?

we are working we are not working are we working?

you are working you are not working are you working?

they are working they are not working are they working?

Negative interrogative: am I not working- are you not working- is he not working- Contractions: the verb be can be contracted, so the present continuous of any verb can be contracted:

Affirmative Negative Negative interrogative

I'm working I'm not working aren't I working?

Note the irregular contraction aren't I- for am I not?

The spelling of the present participle

1. When a verb ends in a single e, this e is dropped before ing

argue arguing

hate hating

love loving

Exceptions :

age ageing

dye dyeing

singe singeing

agree agreeing

see seeing

2. When a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a single consonant, this consonant is doubled before ing:

hit hitting

run running

stop stopping

3. Verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains only one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable:

admit admitting

begin beginning

prefer preferring

4. Exceptions

budget budgeting

enter entering (stress not on the last syllable).

5. A final 1 after a single vowel is always doubled:

Signal signalling

travel travelling except in American English.

6. ing can be added to a verb ending in y without affecting the spelling of the verb:

carry carrying

enjoy enjoying

hurry hurrying

Uses of the present continuous tense

- For an action happening now

It is raining.

I am not wearing a coat as it isn 't cold.

Why are you sitting at my desk-

- For an action happening about this time but not necessarily at the moment of speaking:

I am reading a play by Shaw. (This may mean 'at the moment of speaking' but may also mean 'now' in a more general sense.)

He is teaching French and learning Greek. (He may not be doing either at the moment of speaking.)

- When two continuous tenses having the same subject are joined by and, the auxiliary may be dropped before the second verb, as in the above example.

- For a definite arrangement in the near future:

I'm meeting Peter tonight.

Are you doing anything tomorrow afternoon- ~ Yes, I'm playing tennis with Ann.

- With a point in time to indicate an action which begins before this point and probably continues after it:

At six I am bathing the baby. (I start bathing him before six.)

- With always:

He is always losing his keys.

This form is used, chiefly in the affirmative, for a frequently repeated action, usually when the frequency annoys the speaker or seems unreasonable to him:

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