Additional text A Revolution in Physical Science – Electronics 3
Additional text Telecommunications and The Computer Era 8
Telephony. The telephone
Additional text How Sounds are Produced 14
Additional text Radio Waves 21
Additional text Satellites and Telecommunications 26
Additional text The Use of Electromagnetic Waves 31
Additional text 37
Additional text The Internet 43
Supplement 1 49
Supplement 2 50
Supplement 3 51
Supplement 4 52
Extras din document
Electronics: the science and technology of electrons and electronic devices
Vacuum tube: American term of thermionic valve/; electronic component which was
commonly used before the invention of semiconductor devices such as transistors - (lampă electronică).
Device: apparatus = equipment - (aparat, echipament, dispozitiv).
Transistor: semiconductor component with three electrodes (emitter, base and collector) used for switching or amplifying an electronic signal;-(transistor).
IC (integrated circuit): electronic circuit containing many components on a single silicon chip - (circuit integrat).
Silicon: chemical element (Si) used to make semiconductor components.
Chip or microchip: small electronic component which contains an integrated circuit on one piece of silicon.
Power: = current = energy - (putere, current, energie).
Hi h fi - high-fidelity: high quality sound reproduction which is true to the original sound - (de înaltă fidelitate).
Microelectronics: electronics using integrated circuits;
Microprocessor: IC chip at the center of a computer for controlling the system and processing the data;
II. Read the text: Electronics
To separate electronics from the concept of electricity is extremely difficult. The field of electricity is generally concerned with magnetism, light, heating and the production of electricity by generators and chemical action.
Electronics began at the start of the twentieth century with the invention of the vacuum tube. The first devices for everyday use were radios, followed by televisions record players, and tape recorders. These devices were large and used a lot of power.
The invention of the transistor in 1947 meant that much smaller, low-powered devices could be developed. A wide variety of electronic devices such as hi-fi units and portable radios became common in the home.
It was not until 1958 that microelectronics began with the development of ICs (integrated circuits) on silicon chips. This led to a great increase in the use of electronics in everyday items. The introduction of the microprocessor allowed electronics to be used for the control of many common processes.
Microprocessors are now used to control many household items such as automatic washing-machines, dishwashers, central heating systems, sewing machines, and food processors. Electronic timers are found in digital alarm clocks, water heaters, electric cookers, and microwave ovens. Several recent developments in the field of electronics have led to better ways to communicate efficiently over long distances. Telephones use electronics to provide automatic dialing and answer phone facilities. New entertainment devices have been developed, such as video recorders and CD (compact disc) players.
Electronics is likely to become even more common in the home as multimedia entertainment systems and computer-controlled robots are developed.
Large-scale application of electronic technique is a trend of technical progress capable of revolutionizing many branches of industry.
Electronics as a science studies the properties of electrons, the laws of their motion, the laws of the transformation of various kinds of energy through the media of electrons.
At present it is difficult to enumerate all branches of science and technology which are based on electronic technique. Without radio electronics we would not have cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. It is no mistake, therefore, to compare the birth of electronics to such great achievements of mankind as the discovery of fire, the use of the wheel, and the penetration into the secrets of the atom.
III. Answer the following questions:
1. Is it possible to separate electronics from the concept of electricity- Why?
2. When did electronics begin?
3. Which devices were used in the house?
4. What was invented in 1947?
5. Which device allowed electronics to be used for the control of many common processes?
6. What can you say about the future of electronics?
7. What does electronics study?
8. Which other fields are connected with electronics at present?
1. What do you know about these devices- You can describe them using the answer of these questions:
a) What kind of machine is the respective device?
b) What is the device used for?
c) What is the device capable of performing?
d) What is the device based on?
e) What is the architecture of the device?
Digital alarm clock
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