Fituici Bazele Marketingului

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Domenii: Engleza, Marketing

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Marketing essence and main definitions of marketing

The definition of marketing can be grouped into 2 big categories:

1st –classical(or narrow)

2 one - modern (broad)

In classical terms marketing is defined as the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user. The classical definition is oriented to the physical distribution of ec. Goods and services and it has several disadvantages or weaknesses:

-The role of distribution and marketing channels is overvalued.

-Government and nonprofit organizations which are frequently engaged in marketing activities are omitted.

-The strong impact of marketing by many publics such as stockholders,employees unions or consumer organizations is not considered.

The modern definition of marketing was officially recognized by the American Marketing Association 1985 when it replaced the classical definition with this one. Marketing is the process of planing and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services in order to create exchanges, that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

The modern definition is much broader because a good definition of marketing should imply not only ec. Goods and services but it should cover nonprofit organizations, people ideas, places and it must be oriented to satisfy consumer needs and preferences.

The most used definition nowadays is the definition given by Kotler that is also accepted by the American Marketing Association. According to this definition marketing is the process of anticipation management and satisfaction of demand throw the exchange process involving goods, services organizations, people, places and ideas. This definition has 3 terms:

1.-anticipation of demand – these activities require a company to do consumer research on a regular basis so that it develops and introduces products that are desired by consumers.

2.-management of demand – it includes stimulation,facilitation and regulation tasks.

*Stimulation task make consumers to want the firm’s products through attractive product design, intensive promotion, reasonable prices and other strategies.

*Facilitation – the process whereby the firm makes it easy to buy it products through convenient locations, availability of credit and well informed sales people.

*Regulation – is needed when there are peak periods or when demand is grater than supply.

3.-satisfaction of demand – it involves actual performance, safety and availability of options after sale services. For consumers to be satisfied, the goods, services, organizations, people, places and ideas, they are interested in must to fulfill the expectations.

2. Four types of utility and their importance in marketing

The American Heritage Dictionary defines utility as "the quality or condition of being useful". Utility is further defined as any quality and/or status that provides a product with the capability to satisfy the consumer's wants and needs. Marketing is responsible for creating most of a product's inherent utility.

There are four basic types of utility:

-Form utility: production of the good or service, driven by the marketing function. For example, Procter and Gamble turns raw ingredients and chemicals into toothpaste.

-Place utility: making the product available where customers will buy the product. Procter and Gamble secures shelf space for the toothpaste at a wide variety of retailers including supermarkets and drugstores.

-Time utility: making the product available when customers want to buy the product. The U.S. drugstore chain Walgreens has many locations open 24 hours a day, and since the 1990's has placed most of their newer stores at major intersections.

-Possession utility: once you have purchased the product, you have rights to use the product as intended, or (in theory) for any use you would like.

A fifth type of utility is often defined along with the above four types:

-Image utility: the satisfaction acquired from the emotional or psychological meaning attached to products. Some people pay more for a toothpaste perceived to be more effective at fighting cavities and whitening teeth.

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