PV Parks in Europe

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Acest proiect trateaza PV Parks in Europe.
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Photovoltaic systems(PV system) use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. A system is made up of one or more photovoltaic (PV) panels, a DC/AC power converter (also known as an inverter), a racking system that holds the solar panels, electrical interconnections, and mounting for other components. Optionally it may include a maximum power point tracker (MPPT), battery system and charger, solar tracker, energy management software, solar concentrators or other equipment. A small PV system may provide energy to a single consumer, or to an isolated device like a lamp or a weather instrument. Large grid-connected PV systems can provide the energy needed by many customers. The electricity generated can be either stored, used directly (island/standalone plant), or fed into a large electricity grid powered by central generation plants (grid-connected/grid-tied plant), or combined with one or many domestic electricity generators to feed into a small grid (hybrid plant). Systems are generally designed in order to ensure the highest energy yield for a given investment.

Components of a PV system

The solar energy conversion into electricity takes place in a semiconductor device that is called a solar cell. A solar cell is a unit that delivers only a certain amount of electrical power. In order to use solar electricity for practical devices, which require a particular voltage or current for their operation, a number of solar cells have to be connected together to form a solar panel, also called a PV module. For large-scale generation of solar electricity the solar panels are connected together into a solar array.

The solar panels are only a part of a complete PV solar system. Solar modules are the heart of the system and are usually called the power generators. One must have also mounting structures to which PV modules are fixed and directed towards the sun. For PV systems that have to operate at night or during the period of bad weather the storage of energy is required, the batteries for electricity storage are needed. The output of a PV module depends on sunlight intensity and cell temperature; therefore components that condition the DC (direct current) output and deliver it to batteries, grid, and/or load are required for a smooth operation of the PV system. These components are referred to as charge regulators. For applications requiring AC (alternating current) the DC/AC inverters are implemented in PV systems. These additional components form that part of a PV system that is called balance of system (BOS). Finally, the household appliances, such as radio or TV set, lights and equipment being powered by the PV solar system are called electrical load. The elements of a PV system are schematically presented in Figure 1.

In summary, a PV solar system consists of three parts:

i) PV modules or solar arrays,

ii) balance of system,

iii) electrical load.

PV parks in Europe: locations, dimensions

The following is a list of photovoltaic power stationst hat are larger than 30 MW in current net capacity.Solar photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity and many solarphotovoltaic power stations have been built. The size of these stations has increased progressively over the last decade with frequent new capacity records.

Germany: Solarpark Neuhardenberg

It is one of the biggest photovoltaic projects in Germany. The 145MW Solar Park located on an airfield in east Brandenburg. The 240-hectare solar park has to be connected to the grid

Germany 145MW solar park completed PV-magazine

Germany: SolarPark Templin

Contracts for the acquisition of the new photovoltaic system in Templin in the German state of Brandenburg were signed in the fall of 2012. Here, Commerz Real invests around 205 million euros in a large-scale project with a nominal output of 128.48 MWp. Land area is 214ha.

PV-magazine

France: Toul-Rosieres Solar Park

The Toul-Rosières Solar Park is a 115 MW solar farm located at the Toul-Rosières Air Base, in France. It is the largest photovoltaic power station in France. The project is developed by EDF Énergies Nouvelles (EDF EN). The solar park has about 1.4 million thin-film PV panels made by First Solar. It covers area of 367 hectares (910 acres).

PV-magazine

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UNIVERSITY “TRANSILVANIA” OF BRASOV