Applications of Blockchain technology in logistics of conditione

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Cuprins

Background and Related Work . ... .. .. .4

- Key Product Dimensions ...5

- Desirable properties of blockchain in short supply chains . . . .5

- Value Gained by Using Blockchain ..6

- Innovation in Supply Chains caused by Blockchain . ... .6

Literature Review . .. 7

- Research on Technology Currently Being Implemented .. . .. ..7

- Current Research on Blockchain in Supply Chain Management .. ... ..8

- Public vs Private Blockchains . . ..9

- Requirements needed for data exchange in blockchain .. . ... .10

Conclusion . . .10

Bibliography . 11

Extras din document

Introduction

The food supply chain has always been under observation for possible improvements, today some of the main objectives to achieve in this sector are:

- Traceability

- Transparency

- Security

- Sustainability

Topic Definition

Traceability The ability to document and trace a product forward and backward its history through the whole, or part, of a production chain from harvest through transport, storage, processing, distribution and sales (Jack G.A. J. van derVorst, 2005)

Transparency Transparency of a supply chain network is the extent to which all the network’s stakeholders have a shared understanding of, and access to, product and process related information that they request, without loss, noise, delay and distortion. (Beulens, Broens, 2003)

Security Food security is a term used over the time to mean different things; generally is used to describe the access to enough food to meet dietary energy requirements. It could be used to describe the food availability in a country or to explain the nutritional security of products (Pinstrup-Andersen, 2009)

Sustainability Sustainability commonly refers to how the needs of the present human generation can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It includes

environmental aspects as well as a social dimension, also related

to waste and refrigeration related to storage, and foodservice operations during preparation and service (Akkerman-Farahani, 2010).

These objectives were born with the development of a globalized market in continuous growth that has highlighted some shortcomings of the classic supply chain system. As a result, new regulations have been developed that induce its development such as the European community directive EN 92/1 CEE (Marija Bogata;2005) which concerns food products that are more dependent on the food supply chain, conditioned goods specifically. These require more complicated quality maintenance as in the case of the control of temperature variations during the life cycle of the products, which can influence the growth of pathogens or different types of deterioration. Being able to develop visibility of flows, especially in conditioned goods, is therefore always a relevant topic. An answer could be Blockchain, a distributed book (ledger) with many potential applications of traceability and not only for financial exchanges (Tijan; 2019). We think that blockchain technology can prove to be useful even if applied in the food supply chain of conditioned goods to increase efficiency, transparency and to speed up the flow of products. Moreover, it can also prove useful as proof of the sustainability declared by the products, thus respecting sustainability criteria (Grimm; 2016). Although blockchain technology has existed for about ten years it is still in early stages of development, this is one of the vulnerabilities/challenges of this technology. It require more time for the verification of every transaction because it need acknowledgement of every node in the network (Tijan; 2019).

The aim of this research is to demonstrate the potential utilization use of blockchain technology in the conditioned goods sector, with the demonstration of the advantages and disadvantages that can derive from it and with a clear comparison with the alternatives available today.

To reach that aim the following objectives are (1) a traditional literature review to evaluate the current state of art in the conditioned goods and blockchain technology sector;

(2) to understand the differences between the supply chains of traditional conditioned goods networks and blockchain-based and knowing when and why blockchain technology is to be considered a possible substitute; (3) to understand the feasibility of blockchain from the perspective of managers of food SMEs to analyze the value of blockchain within SMEs in conditioned goods supply chains.

Background and Related Work

Blockchain’s ability to guarantee the reliability, traceability, and authenticity of information, along with smart contractual relationships for a trustless environment all portend a major rethinking of supply chains, supply chain management.

Influences on the short supply chain product and material flows also exist. Every product may have a digital presence so that all relevant actors can have direct product profile access. Security measures may be set in place to limit access, where only the parties with the correct digital keys have access to a product. There is a range of data that can be collected for conditioned goods, including the status of the product, the type of product, and the standards that are to be implemented for the product.

In our case, in short supply chain and for conditioned goods an information tag attached with a product represents an identifier that links physical products to their virtual identity in the blockchain.

One interesting structure and flow management characteristics are how a product is “owned” or transferred by a particular actor. Actors gaining permission to enter new information into a product’s profile or initiate a trade with another party will likely be a significant role, where gaining permission may require smart contract agreements and consensus. Before a product is transferred or sold to another actor, both parties may sign a digital contract or meet a smart contract requirement, to authenticate the exchange. Once all parties have met contractual obligations and processes, transaction details update the blockchain ledger. The records of data transactions would be automatically updated by the system when a change is initiated.

Bibliografie

Dobrovnik, M. (2018). Blockchain for and in Logistics: What to Adopt and Where to Start. Basel.

IBM. (2020, October 25). Benefits of IBM BLockchain Platform. Pobrano z lokalizacji IBM: https://www.ibm.com/blockchain/platform

Oracle. (2020, 10 23). Blockchain for Business. Pobrano z lokalizacji Oracle: https://www.oracle.com/a/ocom/docs/cloud/cloud-essentials-blockchain-for-the-enterprise.pdf

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